Human Motivation & Affective Neuroscience Lab
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Publications
Books
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (Eds.). (2010). Implicit motives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Manuscripts in preparation or submitted for publication
  • Roch, R., Rösch, A. G., & Schultheiss, O. C. (in preparation). Enhancing congruence between implicit motives and personal goal commitments: A randomized controlled trial.
  • Rösch, A. G., & Schultheiss, O. C. (in preparation a). The Standardized and Motivated Facial Expression of Emotion (SMoFEE)  stimulus set: I. Evaluation of expressive and perceptual validity.
  • Rösch, A. G., & Schultheiss, O. C. (in preparation b). The Standardized and Motivated Facial Expression of Emotion (SMoFEE)  stimulus set: II. The influence of implicit motives on the expression and perception of emotions.
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Hofer, J. (in preparation). Meta-analytic evidence for robust age-graded gender difference in narrative fluency.
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Köllner, M. G. (submitted). Implicit motives. In O. P. John & R. W. Robins (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (4 ed.). New York: Guilford.
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Mehta, P. H. (Eds.). (in preparation). International Handbook of Social Neuroendocrinology: Routledge.
Publications in peer-reviewed journals and edited books

In Press

  • Rawolle, M., Schultheiss, O. C., Strasser, A., & Kehr, H. M. (in press). The motivating power of visionary images: Effects on motivation, affect, and behavior. Journal of Personality. [Click here to request a preprint]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Wirth, M. M. (in press). Biopsychological aspects of motivation. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivation and action (3 ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. [Click here to request a preprint]

2017

  • Oxford, J. K., Tiedtke, J. M., Ossmann, A., Özbe, D., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2017). Endocrine and aggressive responses to competition are moderated by contest outcome, gender, individual versus team competition, and implicit motives. PLoS One, 12, e0181610. [Click here for open access]

2016

  • Drescher, A., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2016). Meta-analytic evidence for higher implicit affiliation and intimacy motivation scores in women, compared to men. Journal of Research in Personality, 64, 1-10. [Click here to request a preprint]
  • Kuo, P. X., Saini, E. K., Thomason, E., Schultheiss, O. C., Gonzalez, R., & Volling, B. L. (2016). Individual variation in fathers’ testosterone reactivity to infant distress predicts parenting behaviors with their 1-year-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 58(3), 303-314. [Click here to request a preprint]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Wiemers, U. S., & Wolf, O. T. (2016). Exploring Effects of Hydrocortisone on Implicit Motivation and Activity Inhibition: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 2(3), 267-280. [Click here to request a preprint]

2015

  • Donhauser, P. W., Rösch, A. G., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2015). The implicit need for power predicts recognition speed and accuracy for dynamic changes in facial expressions of emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 714–721. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Neumann, M.-L., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2015). Implicit motives, explicit motives, and critical life events in clinical depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 39, 89-99. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Zimni, M. (2015). Associations between implicit motives and salivary steroids, 2D:4D digit ratio, mental rotation performance, and verbal fluency. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 1(4), 387-407. doi: 10.1007/s40750-014-0012-2. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Steinmann, B., Dörr, S. L., Schultheiss, O. C., & Maier, G. W. (2015). Implicit motives and leadership effectiveness revisited: What constitutes the leadership motive pattern? Motivation and Emotion, 39,167-174. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Wiemers, U. S., Schultheiss, O. C., & Wolf, O. T. (2015). Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation and its endocrine arousal signature. Hormones and Behavior, 71, 69-74.. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Yang, F., Ramsay, J. E., Schultheiss, O. C., & Pang, J. S. (2015). Need for achievement moderates the effect of motive-relevant challenge on salivary cortisol changes. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 321-334. [Click here to request a copy]

2014

  • Köllner, M. G., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2014). Meta-analytic evidence of low convergence between implicit and explicit measures of the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(826). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00826 [URL]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Köllner, M. G. (2014). Implicit motives and the development of competencies: A virtuous-circle model of motive-driven learning. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 73-95). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Schultheiss, M. (2014). Implicit motive profile analysis: An if-then contingency approach to the Picture Story Exercise. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(1), 1-16. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Wiemers, U., & Wolf, O. T. (2014). Implicit need for achievement predicts attenuated cortisol responses to difficult tasks. Journal of Research in Personality, 48, 84-92. [Click here to request a copy]

2013

  • Rawolle, M., Schultheiss, M., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2013). Relationships between implicit motives, self-attributed motives, and personal goal commitments. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(923). [URL]
  • Rösch, A. G., Stanton, S. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2013). Implicit motives predict affective responses to emotional expressions. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(985). [URL]
  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2013). Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(748). [URL]
  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2013). The hormonal correlates of implicit motives. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(1), 52-65. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2013). Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 87, 111-114. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Schiepe-Tiska, A. (2013). The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: The case of the need for power. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(141). [URL]

2012

  • Kordik, A., Eska, K., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2012). Implicit need for affiliation is associated with increased corrugator activity in a non-positive, but not in a positive social interaction. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 604-608. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Patalakh, M., & Rösch, A. G. (2012). Salivary progesterone is associated with reduced coherence of attentional, cognitive, and motivational systems. Brain and Cognition, 80(2), 214-222. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long, A. T. Panter, D. Rindskopf & K. J. Sher (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology (Vol. 1: Foundations, planning, measures, and psychometrics, pp. 489-500). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Strasser, A., Rösch, A. G., Kordik, A., & Graham, S. C. C. (2012). Motivation. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (2 ed., pp. 650-656). Oxford, GB: Elsevier. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Strasser, A. (2012). Referential processing and competence as determinants of congruence between implicit and explicit motives. In S. Vazire & T. D. Wilson (Eds.), Handbook of self-knowledge (pp. 39-62). New York: Guilford. [Click here to request a copy]

2011

  • Stanton, S., Liening, S. H., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2011). Testosterone is positively associated with risk taking in the Iowa Gambling Task. Hormones and Behavior, 59, 252–256. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Patalakh, M., Rawolle, M., Liening, S., & MacInnes, J. J. (2011). Referential competence is associated with motivational congruence. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 59-70. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Stanton, S. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2011). Testosterone and power. In K. Dowding (Ed.), Encyclopedia of power (pp. 662-664). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [Click here to request a copy]

2010

  • Schultheiss, O. C., Rösch, A. G., Rawolle, M., Kordik, A., & Graham, S. (2010). Implicit motives: Current topics and future directions. In T. C. Urdan & S. A. Karabenick (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 16a: The decade ahead: Theoretical perspectives on motivation and achievement, pp. 199-233). Bingley: Emerald. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Hall, J. L., Stanton, S. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2010). Biopsychological and neural processes of implicit motivation. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 279-307). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Liening, S. H., Stanton, S. J., Saini, E. K., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2010). Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: two-week stability, interhormone correlations, and effects of time of day, menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use on steroid hormone levels. Physiology and Behavior, 99(1), 8-16. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2010). Introduction. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. ix-xxvii). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Stanton, S. J., Hall, J. L., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2010). Properties of motive-specific incentives. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 245-278). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [Click here to request a copy]

2009

  • Stanton, S. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2009). The hormonal correlates of implicit power motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 942-949. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Brown, S. L., Fredrickson, B. L., Wirth, M. M., Poulin, M. J., Meier, E. A., Heaphy, E. D., Cohen, M. D., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2009). Social closeness increases salivary progesterone in humans. Hormones and Behavior, 56, 108-111.[Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Riebel, K., & Jones, N. M. (2009). Activity inhibition: A predictor of lateralized brain function during stress? Neuropsychology, 23, 392-404.[Click here to request a copy]
  • Stanton, S. J., Wirth, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2009). Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex responses to anger faces in men but not women. Biological Psychology, 81, 118-122.[Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Kordik, A., Kullmann, J. S., Rawolle, M., & Rösch, A. G. (2009). Motivation as a natural linchpin between person and situation. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 268-269. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Yankova, D., Dirlikov, B., & Schad, D. J. (2009). Are implicit and explicit motive measures statistically independent? A fair and balanced test using the Picture Story Exercise and a cue- and response-matched questionnaire measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 72-81. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Stanton, S. J. (2009). Assessment of salivary hormones. In E. Harmon-Jones & J. S. Beer (Eds.), Methods in social neuroscience (pp. 17-44). New York, NY: Guilford. [Click here to request a copy]

2008

  • Schultheiss, O. C., Wirth, M. M., Waugh, C. E., Stanton, S., Meier, E., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2008). Exploring the motivational brain: Effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 333-343. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Liening, S., & Schad, D. (2008). The reliability of a Picture Story Exercise measure of implicit motives: Estimates of internal consistency, retest reliability, and ipsative stability. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1560-1571. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2008). Implicit motives. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (3rd ed., pp. 603-633). New York: Guilford. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Wirth, M. M. (2008). Biopsychological aspects of motivation. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and action (2 ed., pp. 247-271). New York: Cambridge University Press. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Jones, N. M., Davis, A. Q., & Kley, C. (2008).The role of implicit motivation in hot and cold goal pursuit: Effects on goal progress, goal rumination, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 971-987. [Click here to request a copy]

2007

  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). A memory-systems approach to the classification of personality tests: Comment on Meyer and Kurtz (2006). Journal of Personality Assessment, 89(2), 197-201. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). A biobehavioral model of implicit power motivation arousal, reward and frustration. In E. Harmon-Jones & P. Winkielman (Eds.), Social neuroscience: Integrating biological and psychological explanations of social behavior (pp. 176-196). New York: Guilford. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Hale, J. A. (2007). Implicit motives modulate attentional orienting to perceived facial expressions of emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 31(1), 13-24. [Click here to request a copy] [PDF of figures not included in publication, 267K]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Pang, J. S. (2007). Measuring implicit motives. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley & R. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology (pp. 322-344). New York: Guilford. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Stanton, S. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). Basal and dynamic relationships between implicit power motivation and estradiol in women. Hormones and Behavior, 52(5), 571-580. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Thrash, T. M., Elliot, A. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). Methodological and dispositional predictors of congruence between implicit and explicit need for achievement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 961-974. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Wirth, M. M., Meier, E. A., Fredrickson, B. L., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). Relationship between salivary cortisol and progesterone levels in humans. Biological Psychology, 74(1), 104-107. [Click here to request a copy ]
  • Wirth, M. M., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). Basal testosterone moderates responses to anger faces in humans. Physiology and Behavior, 90, 496-505. [Click here to request a copy]

2006

  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2006). Needs. in J. H. Greenhouse & G. A. Callanan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development (Vol. 1, pp. 532-535). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Wirth, M. M., Welsh, K. M., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2006). Salivary cortisol changes in humans after winning or losing a dominance contest depend on implicit power motivation. Hormones and Behavior, 49, 346-352. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Wirth, M. M., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2006). Effects of affiliation arousal (hope of closeness) and affiliation stress (fear of rejection) on progesterone and cortisol. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 786-795. [Click here to request a copy]
2005
  • Pang, J. S., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2005). Assessing implicit motives in U. S. college students: Effects of picture type and position, gender and ethnicity, and cross-cultural comparisons. Journal of Personality Assessment, 85, 280-294. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2005). An implicit motive approach to competence. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 31-51). New York: Guilford. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Pang, J. S., Torges, C. M., Wirth, M. M., & Treynor, W. (2005). Perceived facial expressions of emotions as motivational incentives: Evidence from a differential implicit learning paradigm. Emotion, 5, 41-54. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Wirth, M. M., Torges, C. M., Pang, J. S., Villacorta, M. A., & Welsh, K. M. (2005). Effects of implicit power motivation on men's and women's implicit learning and testosterone changes after social victory or defeat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 174-188. [Click here to request a copy]
2004
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Wirth, M. M., & Stanton, S. (2004). Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone. Hormones and Behavior, 46(5), 592-599. [Click here to request a copy]
2003
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Dargel, A., & Rohde, W. (2003a). Implicit motives and sexual motivation and behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 224-230.Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Dargel, A., & Rohde, W. (2003b). Implicit Motives and Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase, Oral Contraceptive Use, and Relationship Status. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 293-301. [Click here to request a copy]
2002
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2002). Inhibited power motivation and persuasive communication: A lens model analysis. Journal of Personality, 70, 553-582. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Rohde, W. (2002). Implicit power motivation predicts men's testosterone changes and implicit learning in a contest situation. Hormones and Behavior, 41, 195-202. [Click here to request a copy]
2001
  • Schultheiss, O. C. (2001). An information processing account of implicit motive arousal. In M. L. Maehr & P. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 12: Methodology in motivation research, pp. 1-41). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2001). Assessment of implicit motives with a research version of the TAT: Picture profiles, gender differences, and relations to other personality measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77(1), 71-86. [Click here to request a copy]
2000
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2000). Choice of difficult tasks as a strategy of compensating for identity-relevant failure. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 269-277. [Click here to request a copy]
1999
  • Brunstein, J. C., Maier, G. W., & Schultheiss, O. C. (1999). Motivation und Persönlichkeit: Von der Analyse von Teilsystemen zur Analyse ihrer Interaktion [Motivation and personality: From the analysis of subsystems to the analysis of interactions between subsystems]. In M. Jerusalem & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion, Motivation, und Leistung [Emotion, motivation, and performance] (pp. 147-168). Göttingen (Germany): Hogrefe.
  • Brunstein, J. C., Schultheiss, O. C., & Maier, G. W. (1999). The pursuit of personal goals: A motivational approach to well-being and life adjustment. In J. Brandtstädter & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Action and self-development: Theory and research through the life span (pp. 169-196). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Campbell, K. L., Schultheiss, O. C., & McClelland, D. C. (1999). A necessary adjustment of protocol for use of DPC Coat-A-Count total testosterone assay with saliva. Clinical Biochemistry, 32(1), 83-85. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (1999). Goal imagery: Bridging the gap between implicit motives and explicit goals. Journal of Personality, 67, 1-38. [Click here to request a copy]
  • Schultheiss, O. C., Campbell, K. L., & McClelland, D. C. (1999). Implicit power motivation moderates men's testosterone responses to imagined and real dominance success. Hormones and Behavior, 36(3), 234-41.[Click here to request a copy]
1998
  • Brunstein, J. C., Schultheiss, O. C., & Grässmann, R. (1998). Personal goals and emotional well-being: The moderating role of motive dispositions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(2), 494-508. [offsite HTML]
  • Grässmann, R., Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (1998). Exploring the determinants of students' academic commitment. In P. Nenniger, R. S. Jäger, A. Frey, & M. Wosnitza (Eds.), Advances in motivation (pp. 103-110). Landau (Germany): Verlag empirische Pädagogik.
1997
  • Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (1997). Motivation. In J. Straub, W. Kempf, & H. Werbik (Eds.), Psychologie: Eine Einführung [Introduction to psychology] (pp. 297-323). München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.
1996
  • Schultheiss, O. (1996). Imagination, Motivation und Verhalten [Imagination, motivation, and behavior]. Unpublished dissertation thesis, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Erlangen, Germany.[Click here to request a copy]
  • Brunstein, J. C., Dangelmayer, G., & Schultheiss, O. C. (1996). Personal goals and social support in close relationships: Effects on relationship mood and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1006-1019. [offsite HTML]
1995
  • Brunstein, J. C., Lautenschlager, U., Nawroth, B., Pöhlmann, K., & Schultheiss, O. (1995). Persönliche Anliegen, soziale Motive und emotionales Wohlbefinden [Personal goals, social motives, and emotional well-being]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 16, 1-10.
1993
  • Erzigkeit, H., Lehfeld, H., & Schultheiss, O. (1993). International dementia research: Comments on the validation of psychometric measures and proposals for the definition of clinical relevance. In I. Hindmarch & P. D. Stonier (Eds.), Human psychopharmacology: Measures and methods (Vol. 4, pp. 37-51). Chichester: Wiley.
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